Short Biographies
of the Persons relevant to the Manuscript and its History

Niccolò Aggiunti (1600 - 1635)

studied at Pisa under Benedetto Castelli. After receiving his degree,in 1621, he became tutor of Ferdinand II de' Medici. During this periodit is likely he came to know Galileo, becoming one of his closest pupilsand friends. In 1626 he was awarded the chair of mathematics at Pisa, assuccessor to Castelli. On Aggiunti see FAVARO1913-14.

Vincenzio Antinori (1792 - 1865)

was entrusted by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Leopoldo II, to arrangethe great collection of manuscripts of Galileo and his disciples savedin Grand Ducal library. Antinori wrote an essay on Galileo's philosophy(Della filosofia di Galileo, in ANTINORI, 1868, 1-96), and left in manuscriptan unfinished biography of the scientist. See V. ANTINORI, Della vita edelle opere di Galileo Galilei. Libri Quattro, BNF, Ms. II, V, 111. OnAntinori, see DECARO 1961.

Andrea Arrighetti (1592 - 1672)

studied mathematics at Pisa under Benedetto Castelli. In 1613 he becamemember of the Crusca Academy, and was later appointed as superintendentof fortifications in Tuscany. Arrighetti was made senator in 1644, and,in 1668, the Duke Ranuccio Farnese conferred him the title of Count.

Niccolò Arrighetti (1586 - 1639)

studied with Galileo at Florence. In 1623 he became Consul of the AccademiaFiorentina. Arrighetti published a praise of Filippo Salviati, the friendGalileo chose as protagonist of his Dialogue and of the Discorsi.See Delle lodi del Sig. Filippo Salviati. Orazione di NiccolòArrighetti 1614 Accademico della Crusca, Giunti, Firenze, 1614. Arrighetticopied several folio pages of Codex 72, see the discussion of the contentsof the manuscript.

Raffaello Caverni (1837 - 1900)

from San Quirico di Montelupo (Tuscany), studied astronomy, physicsand mathematics at the Istituto Ximeniano in Florence. In 1860, he wasordained and, after ten years spent in teaching at the seminary of Fiorenzuola,was assigned to the parish church of Quarata Antellese in Bagno di Ripoli,near Florence. Caverni wrote several popular scientific books on physics,botany and mineralogy, and on Dante's Divina Commedia. In the field ofthe history of science, he published works on Galileo's physics (Probleminaturali di Galileo Galilei e di altri autori della sua scuola, Sansoni,Firenze, 1877), and on the invention of thermometer (Notizie storiche intornoall'invenzione del termometro, «Bullettino di bibliografia e di storiadelle scienze matematiche e fisiche», XI, 1878). His massive Storiadel metodo sperimentale in Italia was published in six volume between 1891and 1900. On Caverni see TABARRONI1970; CAPPELLETTI-DITROCCHIO 1979.

Niccolò Cini (? - 1638)

son of a Pisan nobleman, in 1613 was appointed canon of the metropolitanchurch of Florence. He was very active in comforting and supporting Galileoafter the 1633 trial. Viviani counted him among Galileo's disciples. Cinidied in 1638. A letter by Cini is found in Codex 72, see the discussionof otherwritings contained in the manuscript.

Antonio Favaro (1847 - 1922)

professor of history of mathematics at Padua university, studied ingreat detail Galileo's accomplishments, publishing over two hundred articlesand papers on every aspects of his life and work. Favaro was the directorof the so called ÒEdizione NazionaleÒ of Galileo's works,which, in twenty volumes, collects all the writings and the correspondenceof the Pisan scientist. On Favaro see GABRIELI1925; BUCCIANTINI1992.

Mario Guiducci (1585 - 1646)

studied law at Pisa university, and was member of the Accademia dellaCrusca and Accademia Fiorentina. In 1625 adhered to Accademia dei Lincei.His cooperation with Galileo was particularly close at the time of thedispute on the comets, between 1618 and 1623. In 1619, Guiducci publishedunder his name the Discorso delle comete, which in fact was largelya work of Galileo. Guiducci copied several folio pages of Codex 72, seethe discussion of the contentsof the manuscript. On Guiducci see FAVARO1916.

Braccio Manetti (1607 - 1652)

served as official in the Florentine administration, holding differentpositions. With Famiano Michelini he was appointed surveyor of the embankmentof Arno river in the plain of Varlungo. Manetti was member of the CruscaAcademy and of the "Accademia Fiorentina," of whom he was consulin 1642.

Giovanni Battista Clemente de' Nelli (1725 -1793)

Florentine scholar, nobleman and senator, wrote a massive biographyof Galileo (NELLI:1793), and a history of Florentine literature in theSeventeenth Century (Saggio di storia letteraria fiorentina del secoloXVII, Firenze, 1759). Nelli recovered and acquired a noticeable amountof Galilean manuscripts, rescuing the collection from dispersion. On Nelli,see DETIPALDO 1834-38, III, 145-6.

Alessandro Ninci (? - 1649)

born in San Casciano Val di Pesa, was from 1627 priest in the churchof Campoli. In the years 1639-1641 he wrote several letters to Galileo,sending presents and offering his service as copier. Ninci died in 1649.A letter by Cini is found in Codex 72, see the discussion of otherwritings contained in the manuscript.

Francois de Noailles(1584 - 1645)

French nobleman, studied at Padua with Galileo. After having servedin the French army, he was appointed counsellor of state in 1633. In 1634he was sent as French ambassador to Rome. It is possible that Noaillescarried to France the manuscript of the Discorsi. On Noailles seeFAVARO1915.

Tolomeo Nozzolini (1569 - 1643)

taught logic and physics at the university of Pisa. In 1606 he was assignedby the Florentine archbishop to supervise country churches, holding thatpost until 1640. Nozzolini wrote several poems, and in one of them he praisedGalileo's Dialogue.

Giuseppe Toaldo (1719 - 1797)

was member of many scientifc European Academies (Bologna, Turin, Berlin,Mannheim, St. Petersburg, the Royal Society). His scientific activity wasfocused mainly in the fields of astronomy and meteorology, but he wrotealso on mathematics, agronomy and physics. The Abbot Toaldo published in1744 the Paduan edition of Galileo's works. This edition is famous becauseof the publishing of the first authorized reprint of the Dialogue on theTwo Chief World Systems after the condemnation of the work in 1633; formore information on this edition, see the historyof Galileo's manuscripts in the 18th century. On Toaldo see BOZZOLATO1984; CASATI1990.

Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746 - 1822)

professor of physics at the universities of Modena and Pavia, wrotea book on the history of optics (Commentari sopra la storia e le teoriedell'ottica, Bologna, 1814), and published valuable works on Leonardo daVinci and Galileo (Essai sur les ouvrages phisico-mathematiques de Leonardoda Vinci, Paris, 1797; Memorie e lettere inedite finora o diperse di GalileoGalilei, Modena, 1818-21, 2 voll.). On Venturi see DETONI 1923.

Vincenzo Viviani (1622 - 1703)

studied mathematics with Clemente Settimi of the Scuole Pie. In 1638,Settimi introduced him to the Grand Duke, who provided 50 scudi per yearto the young man to provide him with mathematical books, and he later arrangedfor Viviani to be Galileo's companion and pupil. This arrangement beganlate in 1639 and lasted until Galileo's death, in 1642. In 1647, Vivianiwas appointed mathematician to the Grand Duke, and in 1657 he became memberof the Academy of the Cimento. In 1655-56 he edited the first collectededition of Galileo's works. Viviani published many mathematical books,and wrote an important (even if not always reliable) biography of his masterGalileo. In his testament, Viviani left funds for the construction of Galileo'ssepulchral monument in Santa Croce. On Viviani see FAVARO1912-13; BONELLI1972.

Emil Wohlwill (1835 - 1912)

was one of the leading Galileo scholars of the 19th century. He studied chemistry and later worked as an industrial chemist. His most significant contribution to the history of science is a Galileo biography in two volumes, based on forty years of work and on the study of primary sources, many of which had become available to historians for the first time. In addition, he published several pioneering papers on the history of early modern physics. Along with Raffaello Caverni and Antonio Favaro, he was among the first to systematically use the manuscripts collected in Ms. Gal. 72 for a reconstruction of Galileo's mechanics and its development. In spite of his pathbreaking contributions, the work of Wohlwill has been widely neglected by Galileo scholars of the second half of the 20th century.

Short Biographies
of the Persons relevant to the Manuscript and its History